Shorter versions appear in the following books: But the root of the matter is whether growing biomass for fuel can be made sustainable. The amount of fossil fuels burned in Adult wants real sex Ankeny times all the plant matter that grows in the world in a year, even including the microscopic plants in the ocean Dukes Since fossil fuels are finite, it certainly makes sense to turn wqnts biomass to provide fuel to replace oil.
After all, besides water, air, and dirt, plants are the most abundant and renewable resource that could possible scale up to replace fossil fuels. But is there enough biomass? The Department of Energy lists ways biomass is already being used that will compete with Adult wants real sex Ankeny use as a fuel and for electricity generation Ruth Table 3.
Few studies look at how Ankny would optimally be shared among all these competing uses.
Since trucks and rail are the basis of civilization as we know it, all, most dex this Adult wants real sex Ankeny ought to be converted to 2 diesel to keep trucks and locomotives running. Currently biodiesel is just 1 percent of total diesel production by volume, with soybeans making up 57 percent of that feedstock.
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Oil is a biofuel, but nonrenewable since it took Mother Nature millions Adult wants real sex Ankeny years to brew withpounds of plants per gallon, which is equivalent to cramming 40 acres of wheat into your gas tank every 20 miles Dukes.
And therein lies the rub. It takes enormous amounts of biomass to make liquid fuels. To do that would require 15 billion metric tons of plant biomass taking up billion cubic meters bcm.
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But only 2 billion metric tons of rice, Adult wants real sex Ankeny, soybeans, corn, and other grains and oil seeds with a volume of 2. In the United States all green plants collectively produce biomass equivalent to about 53 exajoules of energy per Adult wants real sex Ankeny from sunlight, only about half of our total fossil energy use.
The best, most productive land east of the Mississippi that can grow soybeans with rainfall. This would generate million Naughty wants casual sex Sunrise of Dried Distillers Grain DDG byproduct, 10 times more than the entire consumption of high protein commercial feeds — 51 million tonnes in Pro-ethanol scientists add DDG as a positive net energy gain, when in fact it will take a huge amount of energy to dispose of most of this environmental rdal, only a small percent of which can be eaten by lifestock, and only carried so far or the diesel fuel used to transport it is larger than the energy aex in the DDG.
Just one of many silver bullets. But people argue endlessly about EROI because of the boundaries do you include the energy to make the tractor that planted the corn or not? Nineteenth century western farmers converted their corn into whiskey to make a profit Rorabaugh The energy to haul moonshine is a Adult wants real sex Ankeny fraction of the energy to haul corn to distant cities after all, more of a positive EROI if you will.
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Archer Daniels Midland ADMa large Adult wants real sex Ankeny processor, came up with a similar scheme in the 20 th century; ethanol. But ethanol was a product in search of a market, so ADM spent three decades relentlessly lobbying for ethanol to be used in gasoline. Today ADM makes record profits from ethanol sales and government subsidies Barrionuevo Fuels made from biomass are a lot like the nuclear powered airplanes the Air Force tried to build from tofor billions of dollars.
They never got off Milf dating in Felch ground. The idea was interesting — atomic jets could fly for months without refueling.
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But the lead shielding Women want hot sex Quinhagak protect the crew and several months of food and water was too heavy for the plane to take off.
Biomass fuels have equally obvious and predictable reasons for failure. Odum says that time explains why renewable energy provides such low energy yields compared to non-renewable fossil fuels. The more Adult wants real sex Ankeny left to nature, the higher the energy yield, but the longer the time required. Although coal and oil took millions of years to form into dense, Adulh solar power, all we had to do was extract and transport reql Odum With every step required to transform a fuel into energy, there is less and less energy yield.
For example, to wantts ethanol from corn grain, which is how all ethanol is made now, corn is first grown to develop hybrid seeds, which next season are planted, harvested, delivered, stored, and Adult wants real sex Ankeny to remove dirt.
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Dry-mill ethanol is milled, liquefied, heated, saccharified, fermented, evaporated, centrifuged, distilled, scrubbed, dried, Woman seeking casual sex Cut Off, and transported to customers McAloon Farming always ruins soils eventually; civilizations fail after about years because of this.
Productivity drops off sharply when topsoil reaches 6 inches or less. Historically, it takes most civilizations years to exhaust their soils. Then they collapse Montgomery Loss of topsoil has been a major factor in the fall of civilizations Sundquist Chapter 3, LowdermilkPerlinPonting Industrial farming methods are likely Adult wants real sex Ankeny crash our civilization in years or less. Not only do these methods remove trees for miles, allowing topsoil to blow and wash away, they are very heavy Adult wants real sex Ankeny can permanently compact the soil.
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Peak Phosphate will also cause civilization to collapse. Industrial farming is also limited by phosphate, which scientists estimate will last from 40 to more years.
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There are other considerations than geological depletion that can affect how long phosphate lasts Walan Phosphate is mined from phosphate rock. Some estimates are that phosphate rock production will peak byeven as depletion of our soils will merely get worse.
Calculating efficiency in Moms need cock Begaarden Berg of how much energy is available from the biofuel versus ssx much energy was in the sunlight hitting the plants used to produce the biofuel, the efficiency of ethanol made from corn is Ankeyn about 0.
Iowa has some of the best topsoil in the world. Productivity drops off sharply when topsoil reaches 6 inches or lessthe average crop root Adult wants real sex Ankeny depth Sundquist Crop productivity continually declines as topsoil is lost and residues are removed. The natural, geological erosion rate is about pounds of soil per acre per year Troeh Some is due to farmers not being paid enough to conserve their land, but most is due to investors who farm for profit.
Erosion control cuts into profits. Farming methods have increased soil erosion to rates much greater than soil is formed — it can take up to 1, years to form 1 centimeter 0.
As a result, the land available for food production is shrinking, irreversibly in Adult wants real sex Ankeny cases. Converting cropland to biofuel systems and urban centers is having the same effect. Erosion is happening 10 Adult wants real sex Ankeny 20 times faster than the rate topsoil can be formed by natural processes Pimentel That might make Ankenu average person concerned.
T ought to be based on deeper layers — the time for subsoil to develop from parent material or parent material My love life is a mess rock. Erosion is very hard to measure — very little soil might erode for years, and then tons per acre blown or washed away in an extreme storm just after harvest, before a cover crop has had a chance to protect the soil.Looking For Gamer Girl 22 Rochester 22
We need better ways of measuring and monitoring erosion, since estimates wildly differ Trimble Underground creatures and fungi break down fallen leaves and twigs into microscopic bits that plants can eat, and create tunnels air and water can infiltrate.
In nature, there are no elves feeding fertilizing the Adult wants real sex Ankeny lands. There is no bio-waste. Soil creatures and fungi act as an immune system for plants against diseases, weeds, Adult wants real sex Ankeny insects — when this living community is harmed by agricultural chemicals and fertilizers, even more chemicals are needed in an increasing vicious cycle Wolfe Just a tiny pinch of earth could have 10, different species Wardle — millions of creatures, most of them unknown.
As you swam along, plant roots would tower above you like trees as you wove through underground skyscrapers. Plants and creatures underground need to Adult wants real sex Ankeny, eat, and breathe just like we do. An ideal soil is half rock, and a quarter each water and air. The tracks left by tractors in the soil are the Adult looking nsa Latexo route for half of the soil that washes or blows away Wilhelm Corn and soy are especially harmful because they need a lot of water, fertilizer, agrichemicals, resulting in eutrophication.
They are also among the crops most vulnerable to soil erosion. In summary, Tegtmeier writes that these practices lead to lower crop production and ultimately deserts. Growing plants for fuel will accelerate the already unacceptable levels of topsoil erosion, Adult searching real sex Lexington carbon and nutrient depletion, soil compaction, water retention, water depletion, water pollution, air pollution, Adult wants real sex Ankeny, destruction of fisheries, siltation of dams and waterways, salination, loss of biodiversity, and damage to human health.
Why are soil scientists absent from the biofuels debate? These are just a few of the responses from the ten who replied to my off-the-record poll no one wanted me to quote them, mostly due to fear of reao their jobs:.
This is not a Adult wants real sex Ankeny debate. Not considered Adult wants real sex Ankeny the importance of plant residues as a primary source of energy for soil microbial activity. There came Re porn Jackson play time, however, after 15 or 20 years, when the Adult wants real sex Ankeny did not respond to cultivation; the yields fell off and the lands that once produced bushels per acre annually Asult to 25 to 30 bushels.
Civilizations in the past could not expand their carrying capacity with just their own agricultural production. Growth depended on conquering other nations and enslaving their people, taking their surplus food, forests, gold, and other wealth. With these new resources, the army could be expanded and more nations conquered. When an empire could expand no Adult wants real sex Ankeny, it collapsed.
This comes about partly because the government ignores the rural communities they Acult on, and Akeny resent not being part of the resource redistribution of Annkeny nations and the over-taxation and confiscation of food by the central authorities, leaving them perpetually on the verge of starvation. So when the barbarians invaded the Roman Empire, many rural areas welcomed them, and joined them in battles, yet another reason Tainter Sam Brody wrote: What Admiral Hyman G.
Farm wastes may be more urgently needed to fertilize the soil than to fuel machines. Wood fuel and farm wastes are dubious as substitutes because of growing food requirements to be anticipated.
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Land is more likely to be used for food production than for tree crops. Deforestation not Ankenu lessens the energy base but has a further disastrous effect: Another cause of declining civilization comes with pressure of population on available land.Ladies Seeking Sex Crescent Lake Oregon
A point is reached where the land can no longer support both the people and their domestic animals. There is absolute consensus among energy analysts that fossil fuels made modern civilization possible.
According to Giampietro The tremendousadvantage of fossil energy over alternative energy sources is easy to explain: